Английский язык в сфере юриспруденции и экономики
Text 1. Trial by Jury
Trial by jury started in the twelfth century. But the jury was
a very different body then. It was made up of the people who knew
the accused – his friends and neighbours – not, as today, people who
ought not to know a defendant.
One of the most signi? cant changes to the jury system took place
in 1973. In theory juries are chosen at random, as representatives of
the community, but this has never been so in practice. Before 1973
there was an age quali? cation and a property quali? cation. A juror had
to be between 21 and 60 and a house owner or ratepayer. It was
discrimination against women, mainly because most married couples
had their houses in the name of the husband rather than the wife’s,
and against the young, who were not householders. A pre-1973 jury
was, therefore, predominantly male and middle-aged.
This has changed dramatically. Now jurors are chosen from
the electoral register. They must be aged between 18 and 70 and
must have been resident in the UK for a period of at least ? ve years
since the age of 13.
The following are ineligible for jury service: (1) past and
present holders of any judicial of? ce; (2) solicitors, barristers,
members of a court staff, police of? cers, and others concerned with
the administration of justice, if they have held the of? ce within
the preceding 10 years; (3) clergymen; and (4) the mentally ill.